Freedom of the media

Freedom of the media

This Module focuses on the written press, radio and television broadcasting. The resources are organized according to the two principles that govern Media regulation -diversity and pluralism - and their meaning as applied to different mediums. The Module also includes readings that critically assess the role of the Media and of press freedom in contemporary societies and the digital challenges to the traditional Media business model.

10 items found, showing 1 - 10

Media Regulation

Author: IACtHR
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“[T]he Government of Costa Rica […] submitted to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights […] an advisory opinion request relating to the interpretation of Articles 13 [Freedom of thought and expression] and 29 [Restrictions Regarding Interpretation] of the American Convention on Human Rights […] as they affect the compulsory membership in an association prescribed by law for the practice of journalism […]. The request also sought the Court's interpretation relating to the compatibility of Law No. 4420 of September 22, 1969, Organic Law of the Colegio de Periodistas (Association of Journalists) of Costa Rica […], with the provisions of the aforementioned articles.”

IACtHR, Compulsory Membership in an Association Prescribed by Law for the Practice of Journalism. Advisory Opinion OC-5/85. Series A, No. 5. 13 November 1985

Author: Columbia Global Freedom of Expression
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Here you will find the Syllabus for the MOOC 'Freedom of Expression in the Age of Globalization' created by Columbia Global Freedom of Expression. This course will examine the norms, institutions and forces that altogether have founded a global system of protection for freedom of expression and information. The Foundational Course will include four main segments. It will first survey the thinking of 19th century and contemporary political theorists, Judges in the early years of the twentieth century, and economists to discover why freedom of expression and information matters, and the values and principles that are established through free speech. The second will review the emergence of an international system of protection for freedom of expression, including the international and regional institutions and standards, and the role of international courts. The third and fourth class will focus on the scope of freedom of expression and on its legitimate limits. We will provide answer two key questions: What kind of speech is protected under international standards? What kind of speech may be restricted by Governments and how can it be legally restricted?

Author: IACmHR, Catalina Botero Marino
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“This publication shows the guidelines that have been developed by the Inter-American Court and the Inter-American Commission and the Office of the Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression, regarding the need for an adequate regulation of the radioelectric spectrum to ensure free, independent, vigorous, plural, and diverse broadcasting, to insure, as a result, the greatest circulation of information and opinions.”

OAS, IACmHR, Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression, Catalina Botero. Freedom of Expression Standards for Free and Inclusive Broadcasting. OEA/Ser.L/V/II. CIDH/RELE/INF. 3/09. 30 December 2009

Author: Osher Lifelong Learning Institute at Dartmouth
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In this debate on ‘Freedom of the Press’, organized by the Osher Lifelong Learning Institute at Dartmouth and moderated by Richard Tofel, RonNell Andersen Jones (Professor of Law, University of Utah Quinney College of Law) and Andy Phillips (Partner and Litigator, Clare Locke law firm (DC)) discuss whether limitations should be imposed on the American press given the reportage of blatantly inaccurate fake news and incitement of violence by certain media outfits. The debate endeavours to explore different perspectives on and paths towards the proper resolution of the question about limitations on the press due to its pertinence to the role of the press in a democratic society as well as to the functioning of a democracy itself.

Osher Lifelong Learning Institute at Dartmouth. “Freedom of the Press.” 2019. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PHqYg3_Ebks.

Author: UN Human Rights Committee
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The UN Human Rights Committee adopted (102nd Session) General Comment 34 on States parties' obligations under Article 19 of the ICCPR: Freedoms of opinion and expression (CCPR/C/GC/34). The General Comment provides guidance to States on what the freedoms of opinion and expression mean in practice. Among others, the General Comment refers to: Freedom of expression and the media; Right of access to information; Freedom of expression and political rights; The application of article 19 (3); Limitative scope of restrictions on freedom of expression in certain specific areas; The relationship between articles 19 and 20.

UN, Human Rights Committee. General Comment No. 34. CCPR/C/GC/34. 12 September 2011

Author: OAS and ACHPR Special Rapporteurs for Freedom of Expression
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First Joint Declaration of OAS and ACHPR Special Rapportuers on Freedom of Expression

OAS and ACHPR Special Rapporteurs for Freedom of Expression. First Joint Declaration of OAS and ACHPR Special Rapportuers on Freedom of ExpressionFebruary 28, 2005.

Author: UN, OSCE, OAS and ACHPR Special Rapporteurs for Freedom of Expression
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"This Joint Declaration addresses systematic or targeted attacks on freedom of expression which are aimed at silencing certain perspectives or voices, whether internationally, nationally or locally, and State responses to such attacks. Such attacks are perpetrated in different contexts, including of international and non-international armed conflicts, terrorist attacks and widespread organized crime."

UN, OSCE, OAS and ACHPR Special Rapporteurs for Freedom of Expression. Joint Declaration on Freedom of Expression and Responses to Conflict Situations, May 4, 2015.

Author: UN, OSCE and OAS Special Rapporteurs for Freedom of Expression
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Joint Declaration on the Regulation of the Media, Restrictions on Journalists, and on Investigating Corruption.

UN, OSCE and OAS Special Rapporteurs for Freedom of Expression. Joint Declaration on the Regulation of the Media, Restrictions on Journalists, and on Investigating Corruption, December 18, 2003.

Author: UNESCO, Rachel Pollack
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This issue brief on ‘Journalism, Press Freedom and COVID-19’ is part of the UNESCO series ‘World Trends in Freedom of Expression and Media Development’. It highlights the key global trends in the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic on the freedom of the press and journalism. These trends include: “1) fueling the pandemic, a dangerous “disinfodemic” has arisen, 2) against soaring demand for verified information, independent media have risen to the challenge, 3) technology companies are taking action, but more transparency is needed, 4) some regulatory measures have led to new restrictions of human rights, 5) to keep the public informed, journalists are putting their own safety at risk, 6) the economic impact of COVID-19 may pose an existential threat to journalism, 7) amid the crisis, there are new opportunities to stand up for journalism.” The objective of the issue brief is for it to serve as referential guidance for UNESCO member States, civil society organizations, media outfits, and internet companies.

UNESCO, Rachel Pollack. “Journalism, Press Freedom and COVID-19”. 2020. https://en.unesco.org/sites/default/files/unesco_covid_brief_en.pdf

Author: Doreen Weisenhaus, Simon Young
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"The Internet brings opportunity and peril for media freedom and freedom of expression. It enables new forms of publication and extends the reach of traditional publishers, but its power increases the potential damage of harmful speech and invites state regulation and censorship as well as manipulation by private and commercial interests. In jurisdictions around the world, courts, lawmakers and regulators grapple with these contradictions and challenges in different ways with different goals in mind. The media law reforms they are adopting or considering contain crucial lessons for those forming their own responses or who seek to understand how technology is driving such rapid change in how information and opinion are distributed or restricted.

In this book, many of the world's leading authorities examine the emerging landscape of reform in nations with variable political and legal contexts. They analyse developments particularly through the prisms of defamation and media regulation, but also explore the impact of technology on privacy law and national security. Whether as jurists, lawmakers, legal practitioners or scholars, they are at the front lines of a story of epic change in how and why the Internet is changing the nature and raising the stakes of 21st century communication and expression."

Weisenhaus, Doreen and Simon Young eds. Media Law and Policy in the Internet Age. Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2017